The Australian Outlook 

vigorous in its proselytism and lasted from 1914 into the late twenties. Dreams, ritual, and shaking fits played a prominent part in it.  Off-shoots were the Kava Kava and Kekesi cults in the same area  (Northern Division).                 

The Vailala Madness of Papua7 

The "Vailala Madness", which swept the Gulf Division of Papua from 1919 to 1923, was in the hands of sorcerers who had the power of divination during trances, and who encouraged their followers to take part in orgies of shaking fits. The great bull-roarer cere- monies of the kinship groups were abandoned, and new ceremonies were created to take their place. A steamer was expected, bringing the deceased relatives who were to have white skins. The new ceremonies contained a Christian element, flag-poles were given names and treated as the media through whom messages from the dead were received. there was a certain element of military drill, and. women were given equality. Public confessionals took place.

The Murder of Clapcott, New Hebrides.8   

In 1923 the inland people of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, were influenced by rumours of death,-raising. The prophet concerned claimed that if all the Europeans were killed the dead would arise, with white skins. They would bring European goods with them, and a house was built to receive these. To join the movement, it was necessary to pay a pig, or a fee of 5/- to one pound. During a great feast the prophet's wife died, and a European, Clapcott, was immediately killed. It is stated that the same people killed some Europeans called Greig in 1908, but details do not seem to have been published. These are the only occasions in which Europeans have been assaulted. during these movements, though resistance and threats have been offered on several occasions.9

The Cargo Cults of Buka.10    

In 1932 and 1933 a cargo cult arose which, appeared to he re-  lated to the previously mentioned Lontis cult. The prophets  claimed that a steamer would arrive, laden with good things, and  that all Buka would he ruled from their village. A store was to be


7. See F. E. Williams, The Vailala Madness, Papuan Anthropology Report No. 4, Port Moroby, 1923, the best account which has yet appeared of any of these movements.   

8. See Appendix in Williams, 1928, op. cit.   

9. 1 am assuming that the numerous killings in the nineteenth century, the two revolts in New Caledonia, and the murder of Europeans and police on Guadalcanal and Malaita in 1927, were not accompanied by these movements.

10.  Report to the Council of the League of Nations an the Administration of the Territory of New Guinea, Canberra, 1933/4, 1.934/5.

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